Why would I want or need an isolated USB to RS485 gateway?
When software running on a PC needs access to RS485 network data, or alternatively, may need to send data to the RS485 network, a communication port needs to be created. However, until the USG-1-485, there was no solution that worked in every case.
The Actisense USB to RS485 (USG-1-485) Gateway developed out of the requirement to solve 3 fundamental problems with interfacing the industry RS485 communications to a PC:
A) Ground loops. When the PC and the RS485 system have different ground potentials (or are totally different ground altogether), data can become corrupted and permanent damage can occur (to the PC and RS485 device).
B) Different standards. When you buy a standard USB to serial converter, they normally provide PC standard RS232 port, whereas RS485 uses a bi-directional signaling system. This means that a standard USB to serial converter is incompatible with RS485 / IEC 61162-2 that use the RS485 driver type.
C) The PC has no serial port. Most modern PCs do not come with serial ports any more as these are being replaced by the new standard of USB. Furthermore, RS485 signals are not directly compatible with standard PC serial ports.
Solution for problem A - Ground loops
The primary problem encountered when using a standard USB to serial converter (or a standard RS232 port) is that the ground of the PC is then shared with the RS485 system ground.
PCs are often powered from a mains inverter, generator set or direct from mains supply when in dock, whereas the marine electronics are normally connected to the current battery set.
This means that when you connect the two systems together, you are joining two different power systems. This can result in no visible problems at first, but more often it results in one of three consequences:
1. Data corruption - the data becomes garbled as the electrical data signal now floats on a noisy ground current flowing between two systems.
2. The PC crashes intermittently as ground currents flow across its sensitive electronic circuitry. This can cause permanent damage.
3. In the case of large ground loop faults, some components can melt / catch fire / fuses blow or earth leakage devices trip.
The USG-1-485 solves all these problems by providing a safe, opto-isolated barrier between the two systems. Because the signal travels across this barrier as light, the signals do not share the same ground, and safety is assured as no current can flow between the two power systems. In addition, a built-in power isolator completes the isolation.
Solution for problem B - Different standards
PC serial or “COM” ports use the RS232 standard. This uses a ground and a receive pin to get data from a connected system. Data is sent as voltages referenced to ground on a single transmit line. This type of drive is known as “single-ended”.
In contrast, NMEA 0183 systems use a “differential” system, where a “Positive” data line and a “Negative” data line move in opposition to each other.
Many installations without isolated outputs have been seen where the negative data line on a differential drive system has been connected to the ground of the PC. If you’re lucky, this may work, but if not, you will either simply get no data, or at worst, damage your equipment.
The USG-1-485 solves this by using ingenious circuitry unique to Actisense in both it’s “Listener” (receiver) circuit and its ISO-Drive “Talker” (transmitter) circuit. These circuits are compatible with both RS232 and NMEA 0183.
Solution for problem C - PC has no serial port
Many laptop and desktop PCs do not come equipped with RS232 type serial ports any more (which could be converter to an RS485 type using a converter). The USG-1-485 solves this by creating an industry standard RS485 port from any PC USB port.
This port appears on the PC system as a regular “COM” port, and so can be used with all standard navigation and display software. This allows a connection to be up and running in minutes.
How many RS485 devices can the USG-1's transceiver handle?
The USG-1's transceiver is capable of handling connection of up to 32 RS485 devices.
When connecting multiple RS485 devices, the exact number possible will depend on the total cable length, cable quality, and instrument inputs. Longer total cable lengths, poor cable resistance and capacitance, and RS485 device inputs not meeting the RS485 specifications will reduce the maximum number of devices drivable.